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健康領域的中國創舉——愛國衛生運動的歷史和成效(轉自中國文明網)

發布時間: 2020-04-28  作者: 后勤保障處 責編: 總務處

      黨中(zhong)(zhong)央、國務(wu)院高度重視發揮愛國衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運動的(de)(de)(de)獨(du)特作(zuo)用,始終堅持(chi)(chi)黨和政府領導、堅持(chi)(chi)走中(zhong)(zhong)國特色衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)與健康發展(zhan)道路(lu)、堅持(chi)(chi)預防為主綜(zong)合治理的(de)(de)(de)基本策(ce)略、堅持(chi)(chi)人(ren)民群(qun)眾的(de)(de)(de)主體(ti)地位、堅持(chi)(chi)與時俱(ju)進創新發展(zhan),圍繞解決不同時期人(ren)民群(qun)眾生(sheng)(sheng)產生(sheng)(sheng)活中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)突出衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)問題,開(kai)展(zhan)一系列卓有(you)成效的(de)(de)(de)工作(zuo),走出一條中(zhong)(zhong)國特色的(de)(de)(de)衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)健康事業發展(zhan)之路(lu)。

  一(yi)、愛國衛生運動走過了不平凡的道路

  愛國(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生運動(dong)是(shi)中國(guo)共產黨歷史(shi)上持續時間最(zui)長的(de)群眾性運動(dong)。新中國(guo)成立初期,城(cheng)鄉(xiang)疫(yi)病(bing)流行(xing),群眾缺醫少藥。動(dong)員起來,講究衛(wei)(wei)生,減(jian)少疾病(bing),提高健康水(shui)平,粉碎敵人的(de)細菌(jun)戰爭“四害”、講衛(wei)(wei)生、整治環境為重點(dian),開展群眾性衛(wei)(wei)生活動(dong),有效(xiao)控制鼠疫(yi)等突發急(ji)性傳染(ran)病(bing)的(de)流行(xing),大(da)幅度改(gai)善了群眾的(de)健康狀況。

  改革開(kai)放以(yi)來,愛國(guo)衛(wei)生運動(dong)進入新的(de)(de)歷史階段。1982年,“開(kai)展群(qun)眾性的(de)(de)衛(wei)生活(huo)(huo)動(dong)”被寫(xie)入憲(xian)法,確(que)立愛國(guo)衛(wei)生運動(dong)的(de)(de)法律地位。各地深入推進“兩管五改”工作(管水(shui)(shui)、糞,改水(shui)(shui)井(jing)、廁(ce)(ce)所(suo)、畜(chu)圈(quan)、爐灶、環(huan)境),基(ji)本消除(chu)克山病(bing)、大骨節病(bing),廣泛開(kai)展“五講四(si)美”活(huo)(huo)動(dong),人民(min)文(wen)(wen)明(ming)(ming)素質得到(dao)提升(sheng)。1989年,全國(guo)愛國(guo)衛(wei)生運動(dong)委員會啟動(dong)全國(guo)衛(wei)生城鎮創建活(huo)(huo)動(dong),打造(zao)了一(yi)批國(guo)家(jia)衛(wei)生城鎮,城鄉環(huan)境面(mian)貌顯著(zhu)改善(shan)。本世紀初,針對非典、禽流感(gan)等(deng)突發(fa)重大疫情,各地開(kai)展了“三講一(yi)樹”活(huo)(huo)動(dong)(講文(wen)(wen)明(ming)(ming)、講衛(wei)生、講科學、樹新風),以(yi)農村為重點(dian)推進“三清三改”(清污泥、清垃(la)圾、清路障,改水(shui)(shui)、改廁(ce)(ce)、改路)環(huan)境整治,為疫情防(fang)控和(he)保(bao)障人民(min)群(qun)眾健(jian)康做出積極貢(gong)獻。

  黨(dang)的十(shi)(shi)(shi)八大(da)以來(lai),愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)進(jin)入新的發展時期(qi)。習近平總書記指出,“要(yao)繼承和發揚愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)優良傳統,發揮(hui)群眾工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)的政治優勢和組織(zhi)優勢,建(jian)設健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)、宜居(ju)、美麗家園”。李克(ke)強總理多次對做好(hao)愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)提出明確(que)要(yao)求。十(shi)(shi)(shi)八屆五中全(quan)會(hui)提出建(jian)設健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)中國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)戰略(lve),全(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)與健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)大(da)會(hui)和《“健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)中國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)2030”規劃綱要(yao)》對新時期(qi)愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)提出明確(que)要(yao)求。黨(dang)的十(shi)(shi)(shi)九(jiu)大(da)報告將健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)中國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)作(zuo)為國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家戰略(lve)實(shi)施(shi),進(jin)一(yi)步確(que)立了人民健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)在黨(dang)和政府工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)中的重(zhong)(zhong)要(yao)地位(wei)。2017年5月12日(ri),全(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)委員(yuan)會(hui)召開(kai)愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)65周年暨全(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)座談會(hui),會(hui)議提出新時代愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)的方(fang)針,即“以人民健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)為中心,政府主導,跨部門(men)協作(zuo),全(quan)社會(hui)動(dong)(dong)員(yuan),預防(fang)(fang)為主,群防(fang)(fang)群控,依法(fa)科學治理,全(quan)民共(gong)建(jian)共(gong)享”,為新時代愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong)指明了方(fang)向。黨(dang)的十(shi)(shi)(shi)九(jiu)大(da)作(zuo)出實(shi)施(shi)健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)中國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)戰略(lve)的重(zhong)(zhong)大(da)決策部署,強調(diao)堅持(chi)預防(fang)(fang)為主,深(shen)入開(kai)展愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)(yun)動(dong)(dong),倡導健(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)文明生(sheng)(sheng)活方(fang)式,預防(fang)(fang)控制重(zhong)(zhong)大(da)疾病。

  全國(guo)愛(ai)國(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生運動委員會認真貫徹落實黨(dang)中(zhong)央、國(guo)務院(yuan)決策(ce)部(bu)署,以健(jian)康中(zhong)國(guo)建設(she)為主線,將(jiang)愛(ai)國(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生運動作(zuo)為推(tui)進健(jian)康中(zhong)國(guo)建設(she)的(de)有效載(zai)體,將(jiang)各級愛(ai)國(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生運動委員會作(zuo)為將(jiang)健(jian)康融入所有政(zheng)策(ce)的(de)組(zu)織形式(shi),以健(jian)康城市健(jian)康村(cun)鎮(zhen)建設(she)、衛(wei)(wei)生城鎮(zhen)創建、城鄉環境衛(wei)(wei)生整潔行動、農(nong)村(cun)“廁所革命”等(deng)為載(zai)體,大(da)力推(tui)進健(jian)康中(zhong)國(guo)建設(she),取(qu)得了新的(de)顯(xian)著(zhu)成效。

  二、愛國衛生運(yun)動取得了舉世矚目的(de)成就

  (一)加(jia)強綜合整治,城(cheng)(cheng)鄉(xiang)環(huan)(huan)境(jing)(jing)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)狀(zhuang)(zhuang)況(kuang)明顯改(gai)(gai)善(shan)。經國(guo)務院(yuan)批(pi)準,全(quan)國(guo)愛(ai)國(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)運動委(wei)員會(hui)先后開(kai)展了兩輪(lun)城(cheng)(cheng)鄉(xiang)環(huan)(huan)境(jing)(jing)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)整潔行動,以農(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)垃圾(ji)、污(wu)(wu)水(shui)(shui)處(chu)理(li)(li)(li)和(he)(he)農(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)改(gai)(gai)廁等為重點,以完善(shan)環(huan)(huan)境(jing)(jing)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)基礎(chu)(chu)設(she)施和(he)(he)長效管理(li)(li)(li)機制為主要內容,加(jia)大環(huan)(huan)境(jing)(jing)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)基礎(chu)(chu)設(she)施建設(she)力度,集中(zhong)(zhong)開(kai)展生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)垃圾(ji)清運、污(wu)(wu)水(shui)(shui)處(chu)理(li)(li)(li)、農(nong)(nong)(nong)貿市場(chang)改(gai)(gai)造(zao)等工作,加(jia)快農(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)改(gai)(gai)廁進(jin)程。城(cheng)(cheng)鄉(xiang)環(huan)(huan)境(jing)(jing)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)基礎(chu)(chu)設(she)施和(he)(he)長效管理(li)(li)(li)機制日益完善(shan),農(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)垃圾(ji)處(chu)理(li)(li)(li)、衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)廁所和(he)(he)飲水(shui)(shui)安全(quan)問題(ti)(ti)有效改(gai)(gai)善(shan),大氣污(wu)(wu)染、地表水(shui)(shui)環(huan)(huan)境(jing)(jing)污(wu)(wu)染和(he)(he)噪(zao)聲污(wu)(wu)染綜合治理(li)(li)(li)取(qu)得(de)明顯成效,群眾反(fan)映強烈的衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)問題(ti)(ti)得(de)到有效緩解,城(cheng)(cheng)鄉(xiang)居民生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)產生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)環(huan)(huan)境(jing)(jing)狀(zhuang)(zhuang)況(kuang)得(de)到顯著(zhu)改(gai)(gai)善(shan),衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)廁所覆(fu)(fu)蓋(gai)(gai)(gai)率持續提(ti)升,在實現縣級全(quan)覆(fu)(fu)蓋(gai)(gai)(gai)的基礎(chu)(chu)上,農(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)飲水(shui)(shui)安全(quan)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)監測鄉(xiang)鎮覆(fu)(fu)蓋(gai)(gai)(gai)率達到85%以上,農(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)集中(zhong)(zhong)式供水(shui)(shui)覆(fu)(fu)蓋(gai)(gai)(gai)人口比例提(ti)高(gao)到82%,農(nong)(nong)(nong)村(cun)(cun)(cun)飲水(shui)(shui)安全(quan)問題(ti)(ti)基本得(de)到解決。

  (二)深(shen)化衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)鎮創建,社會(hui)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)綜合治(zhi)理(li)能(neng)力不斷提升。多年(nian)來(lai),全國(guo)(guo)(guo)愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)運(yun)動委(wei)員會(hui)持續推進衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)鎮創建工(gong)作(zuo),制定印發《國(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)市標(biao)準(zhun)》《國(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)市評(ping)審與(yu)管理(li)辦法(fa)》,明確衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)市標(biao)準(zhun),完善評(ping)審程序。建立了涵蓋(gai)多部門、覆蓋(gai)各(ge)領(ling)域的評(ping)審專家(jia)庫,組織(zhi)愛衛(wei)(wei)會(hui)各(ge)成(cheng)員單(dan)位共同開(kai)展綜合評(ping)審工(gong)作(zuo),設(she)立社會(hui)投(tou)訴(su)舉報電話和郵(you)箱等。貫徹落實(shi)轉變職能(neng)、簡(jian)政放權的要求,將(jiang)國(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)鄉鎮(縣城(cheng)(cheng))評(ping)審工(gong)作(zuo)下放至省級愛國(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)運(yun)動委(wei)員會(hui)。各(ge)地參與(yu)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)鎮創建工(gong)作(zuo)的積極(ji)性日益提高,截(jie)至目前(qian)(qian),全國(guo)(guo)(guo)累計命名國(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)市(區)342個,衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)鄉鎮(縣城(cheng)(cheng))累計1452個。國(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)市(區)覆蓋(gai)率為44%,提前(qian)(qian)實(shi)現2020年(nian)的工(gong)作(zuo)目標(biao)。

  通過開展衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)城鎮(zhen)創(chuang)建活動,形(xing)成了(le)社會衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)綜合(he)(he)治(zhi)理的(de)強大(da)合(he)(he)力(li),城鄉(xiang)人居(ju)環(huan)境(jing)顯著提(ti)(ti)(ti)升,公共衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)服務和(he)管(guan)理水平(ping)大(da)幅提(ti)(ti)(ti)高,人民(min)群眾的(de)獲(huo)得感和(he)幸福感明顯增(zeng)強。調查(cha)顯示,通過國家衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)城鎮(zhen)創(chuang)建,法(fa)定傳染(ran)病(bing)報告發(fa)病(bing)率(lv)平(ping)均(jun)降(jiang)低19.4%,規范集貿市(shi)場比(bi)例由(you)35.2%提(ti)(ti)(ti)高到60.6%,居(ju)民(min)對市(shi)容環(huan)境(jing)的(de)滿(man)意(yi)率(lv)由(you)30%提(ti)(ti)(ti)高到98%,對創(chuang)衛(wei)(wei)效(xiao)果的(de)滿(man)意(yi)率(lv)達到98%,取得了(le)良好的(de)經濟和(he)社會效(xiao)益。衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)城鎮(zhen)創(chuang)建工作是改革開放以來推動愛(ai)國衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)運動深入廣泛開展的(de)重要載體和(he)有效(xiao)方式(shi),對預防(fang)和(he)控制疾(ji)病(bing)、保護人民(min)健康發(fa)揮了(le)巨(ju)大(da)作用,成為一個城市(shi)綜合(he)(he)管(guan)理水平(ping)和(he)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)文明程(cheng)度的(de)重要標志。

  啟動(dong)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)村鎮(zhen)建(jian)設(she)(she),推(tui)(tui)(tui)進(jin)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)建(jian)設(she)(she)落(luo)到實處(chu)。2016年,經(jing)國(guo)(guo)(guo)務(wu)院批準,全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)愛(ai)(ai)國(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)運動(dong)委員(yuan)會印發(fa)《關于開展(zhan)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)村鎮(zhen)建(jian)設(she)(she)的(de)(de)指導意見》,全(quan)(quan)面(mian)啟動(dong)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)村鎮(zhen)建(jian)設(she)(she),引導各城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)改進(jin)自(zi)然(ran)環境(jing)(jing)、社(she)(she)會環境(jing)(jing)和(he)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)服務(wu),全(quan)(quan)面(mian)普(pu)及健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)生(sheng)活方(fang)式,滿足居民健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)需求(qiu),實現城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she)與人(ren)的(de)(de)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)協調發(fa)展(zhan)。全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)愛(ai)(ai)國(guo)(guo)(guo)衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)運動(dong)委員(yuan)會在全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)確(que)定38個(ge)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)試(shi)(shi)點市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),積(ji)極探索健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she)有(you)(you)效(xiao)(xiao)模式。組織專(zhuan)業機構研究制定并印發(fa)《全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)評(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)價指標體系(2018版(ban))》。先后對38個(ge)試(shi)(shi)點市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)和(he)全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)所(suo)(suo)有(you)(you)國(guo)(guo)(guo)家衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)開展(zhan)評(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)價,總(zong)結建(jian)設(she)(she)經(jing)驗,查找薄弱環節,指導各地(di)有(you)(you)針對性地(di)完善健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)政(zheng)(zheng)策。成功舉辦國(guo)(guo)(guo)際健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)長論壇和(he)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)美(mei)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)論壇,發(fa)布《健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)上海共識(shi)》和(he)《中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)美(mei)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)南昌宣言》,與世界各國(guo)(guo)(guo)分享(xiang)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)經(jing)驗。2019年全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)愛(ai)(ai)衛(wei)(wei)辦對全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)所(suo)(suo)有(you)(you)國(guo)(guo)(guo)家衛(wei)(wei)生(sheng)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)組織開展(zhan)了(le)(le)評(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)價工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo),確(que)定了(le)(le)2018年度健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she)示范(fan)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、各省份排名(ming)第(di)一(yi)位(wei)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)和(he)進(jin)步(bu)最快(kuai)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)名(ming)單(dan),從評(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)價結果看,各地(di)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)建(jian)設(she)(she)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)穩步(bu)推(tui)(tui)(tui)進(jin),健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)治(zhi)理(li)水平(ping)不斷提升,在健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)環境(jing)(jing)、健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)社(she)(she)會、健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)服務(wu)、健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)文化等領域取得較為(wei)顯著(zhu)的(de)(de)成效(xiao)(xiao)。在參評(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)的(de)(de)37項(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)指標中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),33項(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)指標較上一(yi)年度有(you)(you)所(suo)(suo)提升,29項(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)指標高于全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)平(ping)均值,24項(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)已超(chao)過2020年國(guo)(guo)(guo)家目標值。參評(ping)(ping)(ping)(ping)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(區)人(ren)均預期壽命中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)位(wei)數達到79.15歲(sui),嬰兒(er)死亡率(lv)降低(di)(di)到2.88‰,5歲(sui)以下兒(er)童(tong)死亡率(lv)降低(di)(di)到4.07‰,孕產(chan)婦死亡率(lv)降低(di)(di)到8.88/10萬,城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)人(ren)群健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)水平(ping)總(zong)體優于全(quan)(quan)國(guo)(guo)(guo)平(ping)均水平(ping)。健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)城(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)村鎮(zhen)建(jian)設(she)(she)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)進(jin)一(yi)步(bu)在政(zheng)(zheng)府、社(she)(she)會、群眾之間構建(jian)多層次、全(quan)(quan)方(fang)位(wei)社(she)(she)會共治(zhi)協作(zuo)(zuo)平(ping)臺,是推(tui)(tui)(tui)進(jin)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)建(jian)設(she)(she)的(de)(de)組織保障和(he)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)基礎,更是推(tui)(tui)(tui)動(dong)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)戰略(lve)逐級落(luo)地(di)生(sheng)根的(de)(de)重要抓手(shou)。

  (四(si))堅持群(qun)防(fang)(fang)(fang)群(qun)控專群(qun)結合,重點(dian)疾病(bing)綜合防(fang)(fang)(fang)控取(qu)得顯著成(cheng)效。充分發揮愛國衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運動在重大疾病(bing)防(fang)(fang)(fang)控、重大自然災害(hai)(hai)應(ying)對(dui)及大型(xing)活動保障中的(de)統(tong)籌協(xie)調作用(yong)。開展“清潔(jie)家園、滅蚊防(fang)(fang)(fang)病(bing)”等(deng)群(qun)眾衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)運動,加強病(bing)媒生(sheng)(sheng)物防(fang)(fang)(fang)制(zhi)工作,血吸蟲病(bing)疫(yi)(yi)情降至歷(li)史最(zui)低水平,登革(ge)熱疫(yi)(yi)情明顯下降,成(cheng)功抗擊了(le)H7N9流感等(deng)突發傳染病(bing)疫(yi)(yi)情。積極落實四(si)川(chuan)蘆山地震、云南魯甸地震和(he)(he)洪澇(lao)災害(hai)(hai)災后(hou)(hou)衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)防(fang)(fang)(fang)疫(yi)(yi)、環(huan)境清理、病(bing)媒生(sheng)(sheng)物防(fang)(fang)(fang)制(zhi)等(deng)各項措施,確保“大災之后(hou)(hou)無大疫(yi)(yi)”。做(zuo)好APEC會議、杭(hang)州G20峰(feng)會疫(yi)(yi)情防(fang)(fang)(fang)控和(he)(he)病(bing)媒生(sheng)(sheng)物防(fang)(fang)(fang)制(zhi)保障工作,確保了(le)會議順利舉辦。

  (五)廣泛發動(dong)(dong)(dong)全(quan)(quan)社(she)會,群(qun)眾健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)文明素質進一步提(ti)升。開(kai)(kai)展全(quan)(quan)民(min)(min)(min)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)方(fang)式行動(dong)(dong)(dong)和全(quan)(quan)民(min)(min)(min)健(jian)(jian)(jian)身運(yun)動(dong)(dong)(dong),健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)知識和技能進一步普及,健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)理念(nian)深入(ru)人心(xin)。以愛國衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)月、世(shi)界(jie)廁所日、全(quan)(quan)球洗手(shou)日、世(shi)界(jie)無煙(yan)日等(deng)宣傳(chuan)日活(huo)動(dong)(dong)(dong)為(wei)(wei)契機,廣泛開(kai)(kai)展形式多樣的(de)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)教育活(huo)動(dong)(dong)(dong),組織制作并在(zai)(zai)中央電視臺播出了(le)首部愛國衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)動(dong)(dong)(dong)專(zhuan)題紀(ji)錄(lu)片,在(zai)(zai)浙江杭州市建(jian)(jian)成了(le)全(quan)(quan)國首個愛國衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)動(dong)(dong)(dong)(小營(ying)巷)紀(ji)念(nian)館,制作了(le)愛國衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)運(yun)動(dong)(dong)(dong)公益廣告,以及衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)城鎮創建(jian)(jian)、健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)城市健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)村鎮建(jian)(jian)設等(deng)專(zhuan)題宣傳(chuan)片。組織開(kai)(kai)展全(quan)(quan)民(min)(min)(min)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)方(fang)式行動(dong)(dong)(dong),在(zai)(zai)全(quan)(quan)國建(jian)(jian)立省市縣三級聯動(dong)(dong)(dong)工作網絡,招募居民(min)(min)(min)志愿者作為(wei)(wei)健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)活(huo)方(fang)式指導(dao)員,開(kai)(kai)展快樂十分鐘、無煙(yan)環境建(jian)(jian)設、健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)口腔、減鹽(yan)行動(dong)(dong)(dong)、健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)廚房等(deng)專(zhuan)項(xiang)活(huo)動(dong)(dong)(dong),群(qun)眾健(jian)(jian)(jian)康(kang)(kang)(kang)(kang)素養和文明衛(wei)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)水平明顯(xian)提(ti)升。

  實(shi)踐(jian)證明,愛國(guo)(guo)衛(wei)生(sheng)運(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)是中國(guo)(guo)創(chuang)造衛(wei)生(sheng)奇跡的(de)(de)一條重要經驗。2013年和2017年,世界(jie)衛(wei)生(sheng)組(zu)織(zhi)先(xian)后授予中國(guo)(guo)政(zheng)府(fu)“健康(kang)(kang)(衛(wei)生(sheng))城市(shi)(shi)特別獎(jiang)”和“社(she)會(hui)健康(kang)(kang)治(zhi)理杰出典范(fan)獎(jiang)”,表彰(zhang)中國(guo)(guo)愛國(guo)(guo)衛(wei)生(sheng)運(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)取得(de)的(de)(de)成(cheng)就(jiu)。世界(jie)衛(wei)生(sheng)組(zu)織(zhi)指出: 遠(yuan)在“健康(kang)(kang)融入(ru)所有政(zheng)策(ce)”成(cheng)為全(quan)球(qiu)口號之前,中國(guo)(guo)就(jiu)已經通過(guo)愛國(guo)(guo)衛(wei)生(sheng)運(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)踐(jian)行(xing)著這(zhe)(zhe)一原則;遠(yuan)在“健康(kang)(kang)城市(shi)(shi)”理念誕生(sheng)之前,愛國(guo)(guo)衛(wei)生(sheng)運(yun)(yun)(yun)動(dong)就(jiu)已經通過(guo)更(geng)好(hao)的(de)(de)環(huan)境和個人(ren)衛(wei)生(sheng)創(chuang)造了(le)它們;遠(yuan)在其他國(guo)(guo)家(jia)開始討論健康(kang)(kang)的(de)(de)社(she)會(hui)決(jue)定(ding)(ding)因素(su)之前,中國(guo)(guo)就(jiu)已經制(zhi)定(ding)(ding)出一套解決(jue)這(zhe)(zhe)些問(wen)題的(de)(de)框架。


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